Currently, cracking in concrete is the most significant cause for concrete repair or replacement. Of the 500 million cubic meters of concrete used annually in North America, ~10% is used for repair/replacement of cracked concrete. Very little concrete contains plastic fibers (current height of industry crack mitigation technology), as performance is lacking. As cracking is the primary mode of concrete failure, the addition of fiber reinforcement for crack mitigation will lead to significant reduction in concrete needing repair and replacement; a savings of 0.8 T of CO2e per cubic meter of concrete. Assuming eventual market penetration to be 10% of concrete, hemp fiber reinforcement could increase the longevity of 5,000,000 cubic meters of concrete, leading to an increased energy efficiency in the concrete industry, and a reduced annual requirement of annual concrete.
- Portland Cement Association. Green in Practice 102 – Concrete, Cement, and CO2 Technical Brief. http://www.concretethinker.com/technicalbrief/Concrete-Cement-CO2.aspx (accessed June 20, 2015).
- Chester, Mikhail V. (2008) Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States. Institute of Transportation Studies. University of California, Bekeley, USA. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7n29n303 (accessed June 20, 2015).
- Cement Association of Canada. Economic Contribution. http://www.cement.ca/en/Economic-Contribution.htmp (accessed June 21, 2015).
- Statistics Canada (January 30, 2013) Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territoties, 2011 and 2006 censuses. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/hlt-fst/pd-pl/Table-Tableau.cfm?LANG=Eng&T=101&S-=50&oA (accessed June 21, 2005).
- Cherrett, N.; Barret, J.; Clemmett, A; Chadwick, M.; Chadwick, M.J. Ecologiecal Footprint and Water Analysis of Cotton, Hemp, and Polyester; Stockholm, 2005,pg12.
Every year, more than 50 million tons of asphalt are produced in Canada, with ten times that amount being produced in the United States (~500 million tons). In Canada alone, asphalt is a $5 billion industry, While the industry is dominated by small companies (90% of asphalt companies have fewer than 20 employees), large centers produce their own asphalt, as they are tasked with construction, repair, and replacement of all roads(1).
Natural Resources Canada. Road Rehabilitation Energy Reduction Guide for Canadian Road Builders. (2005)
Q-S., Zhang; Y-L., Chen; X-L., Li; “Rutting in Asphalt Pavement under Heavy Load and High Temperature” Asphalt Material Characterization, Accelerated Testing, and Highway Management – Geotechnical Special Publication 190 (2009) 39-48
Ohio Asphalt. Preventing And Correcting Rutting In Asphalt Pavements. Summer (2004) 12-16
National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Synthesis 475: Fiber Additives in Asphalt Mixtures. (2015)